带状疱疹

带状疱疹 (herpes zoster) is an outbreak of rash or blisters on the skin that is caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox. The first signs of shingles is often burning or tingling pain, 麻木, 或痒, 通常是在身体的一侧. 在50岁以上的人群中,99%的人感染了这种病毒. Almost 1 out of every 3 people in the United States will develop shingles in their lifetime. There are an estimated 1 million cases of shingles each year in this country. Anyone who has recovered from chickenpox may develop shingles; even children can get shingles. 

Some people are at a greater risk of shingles, including people who:

  • Have medical conditions that keep their immune systems from working properly (such as HIV or cancers like leukemia and lymphoma) 
  • Receive immunosuppressive drugs such as steroids and drugs given after organ transplants

Most people who develop shingles have only one episode during their lifetime. 然而, a person can have a second or third episode. 

  • 迹象 & 症状
  • 原因
  • 传输
  • 治疗
  • 并发症
  • 预防

带状疱疹 is a painful rash that develops on one side of the face or body. The rash consists of blisters that typically scab over in 7-10 days. 皮疹通常在2-4周内消失, 在皮疹出现之前, 人们经常会感到疼痛, 瘙痒, or tingling in the area where the rash will develop. This may happen anywhere from 1- 5 days before the rash appears.

Typically the rash pops up in a single stripe around the either the left or right side of the body. Some may have the rash appear on one side of the face. In rare cases, the rash may be more widespread and look similar to chickenpox. In these cases, people tend to have weakened immune systems. 带状疱疹 can affect the eye and cause loss of vision. 

其他症状包括:
  • 发热
  • 头疼
  • 发冷
  • 胃不舒服

带状疱疹 is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus stays dormant (inactive) in the body. Scientist aren’t certain why the virus can reactivate years later – causing shingles.

带状疱疹 cannot be passed from one person to another. 然而, the virus that causes shingles can spread from a person with active shingles to cause chickenpox in someone who had never had chickenpox or received chickenpox vaccine.

The virus is spread through direct contact with fluid from the rash blisters caused by shingles. A person with active shingles can spreads the virus when the rash is in the blister-phase. They will not be infectious before the blisters appear. Once the rash develops a crust, the person is no longer infectious.

如果你有带状疱疹,你应该:

  • 涵盖了皮疹
  • 避免接触或抓痒皮疹
  • Wash your hands ofter to prevent the spread of varicella zoster virus
  • Avoid contact with people below until the rash has developed crusts:
    • Pregnant women who have never had the chickenpox vaccine
    • 早产儿或低出生体重儿
    • 免疫系统弱的人, 比如正在接受化疗的人, 器官移植受者, 以及艾滋病毒携带者

一些抗病毒medicines-acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir—are available to treat shingles and shorten the length and severity of illness. People with shingles should start taking these medicines after the rash first appears to be most effective. 的人, 或者认为他们可能有, shingles should call their healthcare provider as soon as possible to discuss treatment options.

Analgesics (pain medicine) may help relieve the pain caused by shingles. Wet compresses, calamine lotion, and colloidal oatmeal baths may help relieve some of the 瘙痒.

The most common complication of shingles is a condition called postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). People with PHN have severe pain in the areas where they had the shingles rash, 甚至在皮疹消失之后. The pain from PHN may be severe and debilitating, but it usually resolves in a few weeks or months. Some people can have pain from PHN for many years and it can interfere with daily life.

一个人患PHN的风险也会随着年龄的增长而增加. Older adults are more likely to have PHN and to have longer lasting and more severe pain. 关于 10 to 13% of people who get shingles will experience PHN. PHN occurs rarely among people less than 40 years of age.

带状疱疹 may lead to serious complications involving the eye such as vision loss. 很少, 带状疱疹也会导致肺炎, 听力问题, 失明, 脑部炎症(脑炎), 或死亡.

The only way to reduce the risk of developing shingles and the long-term pain from postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is to get vaccinated. The CDC recommends that healthy adults 50 years and older get two doses of the shingles vaccine called Shingrix® to protect against shingles and the complications caused by the disease. 带状疱疹 vaccine is available in pharmacies and doctor’s offices. Talk with your healthcare professional if you have questions about shingles vaccination.

资料来源:疾病控制和预防中心

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