肥胖

肥胖 is one of the biggest health problems in the world 和 an epidemic in the United States. This condition puts people at a high risk of many serious diseases, 比如2型糖尿病, 心脏病, 和癌症. In 2016, the 疾病控制和预防中心 reported an estimated 93.300万(39.8%)成年美国人.700万(18.5%)儿童和青少年临床上属于肥胖.

肥胖 is defined by having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. BMI is is a calculation involving a person’s height 和 weight. 然而,它有许多局限性. 诸如性别等因素, 年龄, 种族, 和 muscle mass can influences the relationship between BMI 和 body fat. A BMI score cannot distinguish between excess fat, muscle, or bone mass. Despite these limitations, BMI continues to be a widely used indicator of excess weight. 

You can help to prevent obesity by making healthy lifestyle choices. Aim for moderate exercise for 20-30 minutes a day. Eat well by choosing nutritious foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, 和 lean protein. Only eat high-fat, high-calorie foods in moderation.

  • 是什么原因导致肥胖
  • 谁有风险?
  • 并发症
许多因素影响肥胖的原因. Ultimately, eating more calories than you burn in daily activities 和 exercise cause obesity. Over time, the extra calories add up 和 cause you to gain weight. 
 

So常见的具体原因包括:

  • 吃高脂肪高热量的不良饮食
  • 久坐不动的生活方式
  • Not sleeping enough – leads to hormonal changes that make you feel hungrier 和 crave high-calorie foods
  • Genetic can affect how your body processes food into energy 和 how fat is stored
  • Growing older can lead to less muscle mass 和 a slower metabolism
  • Pregnancy weight can be difficult to lose 和 may lead to obesity

Certain medical conditions may also lead to weight gain, including:

  • 多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)
  • 二氏综合征
  • 库欣综合症
  • 甲状腺功能减退(甲状腺不够)
  • 骨关节炎

A person’s risk of obesity increases with a complex mix of genetics, 环境, 和心理因素. 

  • 遗传——有些人有遗传因素, 比如代谢率和脂肪储存, 这会让减肥变得困难.
  • Environment – A person’s 环境 includes their home, school, 和 community. They all influence how 和 what a person eats 和 how active they are. They may have never learned to cook healthy meals or can’t afford healthier foods. If you neighborhood is unsafe, a person may find it hard to play, walk, or run. 
  • Psychological – Depression can sometime lead to weight gain, as people turn to food for comfort. Certain antidepressant can also increase risk of weight gain.
  • Medications such as steroids 和 birth control can put people at risk for weight gain.

肥胖导致的不只是体重增加. Having a high ratio of body fat to muscle puts strain on your bones as well as internal organs. It also increases inflammation in the body, which may be a cause of cancer. 肥胖也是导致2型糖尿病的一个主要原因. 

肥胖 is linked to several health complication, many of which are life-threatening.

  • 2型糖尿病
  • 心脏病
  • 高血压
  • Certain cancers (breast, colon, 和 endometrial)
  • 中风
  • 胆囊疾病
  • 脂肪肝
  • 高胆固醇
  • 睡眠呼吸暂停
  • 关节炎
  • 不孕不育

如何治疗肥胖?

If you’re obese 和 haven’t been able to lose weight on your own, there is medical help available. Talk to your doctor, they may be able to refer you to a weight specialist in your area. Your doctor may also want to work with you as part of a weight-loss team made up of a dietitian, 治疗师, 和/或其他医护人员. 

生活方式和行为改变 减肥的关键是什么. No matter what other route your doctor may want to pursue, healthy eating 和 exercise will be a part of the treatment plan. Your healthcare team will educate you on better food choices 和 help develop healthy eating plan that works for you. A daily exercise program will help build strength, endurance 和 metabolism. 
 

医学减肥 involves your doctor prescribe certain prescription weight loss medications in addition to healthy eating 和 exercise plans. Medications are not usually prescribed unless other methods of weight loss have not worked 和 your BMI is 27 or more with an obese-related health condition. Prescription weight loss medications will either prevent the absorption of fat or suppress appetite. 这些药有令人不快的副作用.

减肥手术 (bariatric surgery) requires a commitment from patients that they will change their lifestyle. These types of surgery work by limiting how much food you can comfortable eat or by preventing your body from absorbing food 和 calories. 减肥手术不是立竿见影的解决办法. It’s a major surgery 和 can have serious health risks. After surgery, patients will need to change how they eat or risk getting sick. 

C和idates for weight loss surgery will have a BMI of 40 of more, or have a BMI of 35 – 39.9有严重的与肥胖有关的健康问题. 

Patients often have to lose weight prior to surgery. 另外, they normally undergo counseling to ensure that they’re both emotionally prepared 和 willing to make the necessary lifestyle changes that it will require. 

手术方式包括:

  • 胃旁路手术
  • 腹腔镜可调胃束带法
  • 胃袖
  • 胆胰分流伴十二指肠转换

Sources: 疾病控制和预防中心  医疗在线.政府

资源

Links to various resources on the topics discuss on this page. 

不再支持ie浏览器. If you are experiencing issues, please try a different browser.