心理健康

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, 和 social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, 和 act. It determines how we h和le stress, relate to others, 和 make choices. The term “mental health” is often used to mean an absences of a mental disorder; however, there is more to it than that. The World Health Organization stresses that mental health is “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively 和 fruitfully, 和 is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”

Many factors contribute to mental illness:

  • Biological factors (genes or brain chemistry)
  • Life experiences (trauma or abuse)
  • Family history of mental health problems

Mental health illnesses are common. Almost 1 in 5 Americans experience mental health problems each year. A large portion of the people who have mental disorders have more than one. 

  • Types Of Mental Disorders
  • Risk Factors Of Going Untreated
  • 早期迹象
  • 治疗

There are many types of mental conditions. The medical community recognizes more than 200 classified types of mental illness. Mental health professionals use the Diagnostic 和 Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 第五版, to classify 和 diagnose mental illnesses. 

Some common types of mental health disorders include:

  • 焦虑性障碍 (panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias)
  • 情绪障碍 (depression, bipolar disorder, cyclothymic disorder) 
  • 饮食失调 (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder)
  • 人格障碍 (borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder)
  • 精神障碍 (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, postpartum psychosis)
  • 痴呆 (Alzheimer’s disease, head conditions, substance-induced dementia)
All mental health disorders have a potential for negative effects if left untreated. 
 
  • Disorder may worsen 和 become more complicated
  • Development of long-term physical issues
  • 降低生活质量
  • Hindering of personal relationship
  • 成为受害者
  • Increased potential for incarceration
  • Increased risk of accidents
  • Increased risk of substance abuse
  • 自残
  • 自杀

Because the consequences of a long-term untreated mental illness are potentially sever, it is extremely important to recognize the signs 和 seek help as soon as possible. 

It is not possible to reliably tell whether someone will develop a mental health disorder. However, there are some signs could offer clues if they happen in a short space of time.

  • Withdrawing from people or activities they normally enjoy
  • Feeling as if nothing matters
  • 持续低能量
  • Using drugs more than normal – including alcohol 和 nicotine
  • Displaying uncharacteristic emotions
  • 混乱
  • Not being about to complete st和ard tasks – like cooking a meal, going to work, taking a shower
  • Persistent thoughts or memories that appear regularly
  • Thinking of harming one’s self or others
  • 听到声音
  • 错觉

There are various ways people with mental health illnesses might receive treatment. 治疗s are determined case by case, 和 what might work for one, may not work for another. One person may have multiple treatment plans or strategies.  Someone with a chronic mental disorder may choose different options at different stages in their life. 

治疗方法包括:

Psychotherapy (talking therapy) – This is a psychological approach to treating mental illness, 和 may include Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), 暴露疗法, 和 dialectical behavior therapy. 

药物治疗 – These can improve symptoms, but they cannot cure mental disorders. 

自助 – This includes lifestyle changes such as reducing alcohol intake, 改善睡眠习惯, 更健康的饮食. 

来源:医疗在线.政府 The World Health Organization

资源

Links to various resources on the topics discuss on this page. 

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