二月是心脏月.

心脏病是世界范围内的主要死亡原因. 根据美国心脏协会,116.4 million (46%) of U.S. 据估计,成年人有高血压. 到2035年,超过1.3亿成年人——45岁.1% of the U.S. population – are projected to have some form of cardiovascular disease. 80%的心血管死亡是可以预防的.  A healthy lifestyle can help reduce your risk of heart disease. This includes regular exercise, healthy eating habits, and quit smoking. Researchers find that the risk of a heart attack steadily declines as you increase your cardio fitness. 

Heart Disease

Heart disease (or cardiovascular disease) describes a wide range of conditions that affect your heart.  These conditions may involve blood vessel diseases, heart rhythm problems, and heart defects. Each types of heart disease has different causes and symptoms. It is important to visit with your doctor to discuss your risk factors and heart disease prevention.

心脏病的类型:

  • 冠状动脉疾病
  • 扩大心(心脏肥大)
  • Heart Attack
  • 心律不齐
  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Heart Valve Disease
  • 心脏性猝死
  • 先天性心脏病
 
 
  • 心肌疾病(心肌病)
  • 扩张型心肌病
  • 肥厚性心肌病
  • 限制性心肌病
  • Pericarditis
  • Pericardial Effusion
  • Marfan Syndrome
  • Heart Murmurs 

冠状动脉疾病

  • Causes
  • Symptoms

Cardiovascular disease refers to different heart or blood vessel problems and is often used to mean damage to your heart or blood vessels by atherosclerosis – a buildup of fatty plaques in your arteries. 斑块的形成使动脉壁增厚和变硬, which can stop/slow down blood flow through you arteries to your organs and tissues.

It can be caused by:

  • unhealthy diet
  • lack of exercise
  • being overweight
  • smoking
Cardiovascular disease symptoms may be different for men and women. For instance, men are more likely to have chest pain; women are more likely to have other symptoms along with chest discomfort, 比如呼吸急促, 恶心和极度疲劳. Symptoms include:
  • Chest, pain, chest tightness, chest pressure and chest discomfort (angina)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain, numbness, weakness or coldness in you legs or arms if the blood vessels i those parts of your body are narrowed
  • 脖子、下巴、喉咙、上腹部或背部疼痛

You may not be diagnosed with cardiovascular disease until you have a heart attack, angina, 中风或心力衰竭. 

不规则的心跳

  • Causes
  • Symptoms
引起心律失常的常见原因包括:
  • 心脏缺损(先天性心脏缺损)
  • 冠状动脉疾病
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • 过量使用酒精和咖啡因
  • Drug abuse
  • Stress
  • 一些非处方药, 处方药物, 膳食补充剂和草药疗法
  • 心脏瓣膜病
心律失常是一种不正常的心跳. 你的心脏可能跳得太快、太慢、不规则. Symptoms includes:
  • 在你的胸膛里悸动
  • 心跳加快(心动过速)
  • 心跳减慢(心动过缓)
  • 胸痛或不适
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  •  晕厥或接近晕厥

心脏瓣膜病

  • Causes
  • Symptoms

导致心脏瓣膜疾病的原因有很多. You may be born with valvular disease, or the valves may be damaged by conditions such as:

  • Rheumatic fever
  • 感染(感染性心内膜炎)
  • 结缔组织疾病
The heart as four valves – the aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid valves. They open and close to direct blood flow through your heart. Valves may be damaged by a variety of condition leading to narrowing (stenosis), 泄漏(回流或不足), 或闭合不当(脱垂).
 
Depending on which valve isn’t working properly, valvular hear disease symptoms include:
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • 脚或脚踝肿胀
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting (syncope)

先天性心脏病

  • Causes
  • Symptoms

Congenital heart defects usually develop while a baby is in the womb. 心脏缺陷可以随着心脏的形成而发展, 大约在怀孕后一个月, 改变心脏的血液流动. Some medical conditions, medications, and genes may play a role in causing heart defects. 心脏缺陷也可能发生在成年人身上. As you age, your heart’s structure can change, causing a heart defect.

Serious congenital heart defects – defects you are born with – usually become evident soon after birth. 儿童心脏缺陷的症状可能包括:
  • 皮肤呈浅灰色或蓝色(发绀)
  • 腿部、腹部或眼睛周围肿胀
  • In an infant, shortness of breath during feedings, leading to poor weight gain.
Less serious congenital heart defects are often not diagnosed until later in childhood or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms of congenital heart defects that usually aren’t immediately life-threatening include:
  • 在运动或活动中容易气短
  • 在运动或活动中容易疲劳
  • 手和脚踝都肿了. or feet

Heart Infections

  • Causes
  • Symptoms

A heart infection, such as endocarditis, 是什么时候引起的刺激物, such as a bacterium, virus or chemical, 到达你的心肌. 心脏感染最常见的原因包括:

  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Parasites
Endocarditis is an infection that affects the inner membrane that separates the chambers and valves of the heart (endocardium). 心脏感染的症状包括
  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness of fatigue
  • 腿部或腹部肿胀
  • 心脏节律的变化
  • 干咳或持续咳嗽
  • 皮疹或异常斑点

扩张型心肌病

  • Causes
  • Symptoms
Causes of cardiomyopathy – a thickening or enlarging of the heart muscle – may depend on the type.
 
扩张型心肌病, 最常见的心肌病类型. The cause is unknown, but it may be from reduced blood flow to the heart (ischemic heart disease) resulting from damage after a heart attack, infections, 毒素和某些药物. 它也可以从父母那里继承. 它通常使左心室增大.
 
肥厚性心肌病, This type, in which the heart muscle becomes abnormally thick, usually is inherited. It can also develop over time because of high blood pressure or aging.
 
限制性心肌病, 这种最不常见的心肌病, which causes the heart muscle to become rigid and less elastic, 会无缘无故发生吗. 可能是由疾病引起的, 比如结缔组织疾病, 体内铁含量过多(血色素沉着症), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments.
In early stages of cardiomyopathy, you may have no symptoms. 随着病情恶化,症状可能包括:
  • 因用力或休息而喘不过气来
  • 腿部,脚踝和双脚肿胀
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular heartbeats that feel rapid, pounding, or fluttering
  • 头晕、头昏、昏厥

Risk Factors

患心脏病的危险因素包括:

  • Age
  • 性别——男性患心脏病的风险更大. 女性绝经后患病风险增加.
  • Family history
  • Smoking
  • 某些化疗药物和癌症放射疗法
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Stress 
  • Poor hygiene 

Prevention

Certain types of heart disease, such as heart defects, can’t be prevented. However, you can help prevent many other types of heart disease by making the some lifestyle changes that can improve your heart disease, such as:

  • 戒烟和使用烟草
  • Control other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week
  • 吃低盐低饱和脂肪的食物
  • 保持健康的体重
  • 减少和管理压力
  • 养成良好的卫生习惯

什么时候叫医生

If you or your loved ones have heart disease and show any of these signs, 与医生的办公室联系.
 
  • Feeling of fullness in the stomach with a loss of appetite or nausea
  • 极度疲劳或无法完成日常活动
  • 呼吸道感染或咳嗽恶化
  • 心率快(每分钟100次以上)
  • 新的,不规则的心跳
  • 胸痛或不适 during activity that goes away with rest
  • 在日常活动或休息时呼吸困难
  • Changes in sleep patterns, such as trouble sleeping or feels the need to sleep a lot more than usual
  • 小便比平时少
  • 感到不安或困惑
  • 经常头晕或头晕
  • 恶心或食欲不振

什么时候去急诊室

Call 9-1-1 if 你或你所爱的人有心脏病和经历:

  • 严重和意想不到的新胸痛或不适. It can happen with or without shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, or weakness
  • Fast heart rate (more than 150 beats for minute), especially if short of breath too
  • 呼吸急促,休息时不会消失
  • 突然虚弱或者手脚不能动
  • 突然,严重头痛
  • 晕倒并失去意识
 

资料来源:疾病控制和预防中心

Resources

Links to various resources on the topics discuss on this page. 

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