抑郁症

每个人都会时不时地经历情绪低落的时刻.  然而,如果这种低落情绪日复一日地持续下去,这可能是抑郁的迹象. 抑郁症 is a diagnosable condition that’s classified as a mood disorder and can bring about long-lasting symptoms such as overwhelming sadness, 低能量的, 食欲不振, 对过去能带来快乐的事物缺乏兴趣. 抑郁不是软弱或消极性格的标志. 这是一个重大的公共卫生问题,也是一种可治疗的精神健康状况. 估计有16个.2 million adults in the United States who have had at least one major depressive episode in a give year. 女性患抑郁症的几率是男性的两倍. 

Many people who experience depression may also have other mental health conditions. 焦虑障碍通常与抑郁密切相关.  If you think you are depressed‚ talk with your doctor or a mental health professional immediately. This is especially important if your symptoms are getting worse or affecting your daily activities. I如果不及时治疗,抑郁症会导致严重的健康并发症. The following information is not intended to provide a medical diagnosis of major depression and cannot take the place of seeing a mental health professional.

  • 类型的抑郁症
  • 迹象 & 症状
  • 诊断
  • 原因
  • 治疗
  • 并发症
抑郁症(单相) -这是最常见的抑郁症. 人们在一生中经常会经历反复发作. Major depression is an episode of sadness or apathy along with other symptoms that lasts at least two consecutive weeks and is severe enough to interrupt daily activities. Major depression focuses on the ‘lows’ or the negative emotions and symptoms experienced. 这与躁郁症不同,躁郁症在高潮和低谷之间转换.  
 

持续性抑郁症(心境恶劣) -持续至少两年的抑郁情绪. A person diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder may have episodes of major depression along with periods of less severe symptoms, but symptoms must last for two years to be considered persistent depressive disorder. 这些持续的深深的悲伤和绝望的感觉发生在1.5%的美国成年人.

产后抑郁症 – More intense than “baby blues”, many women experience postpartum depression after giving birth.  大约75%的新妈妈都有“婴儿忧郁症”, who experience a mild depression and 焦虑 symptoms that typically lasts two weeks. Women with postpartum depression experience full-blown major depression during pregnancy or after delivery. 极度悲伤的感觉, 焦虑, and exhaustion that accompany postpartum depression may make it difficult for these new mothers to complete daily care activities for themselves and/or for their baby. 

季节性情绪抑郁(SAD) -其特点是在冬季发病, 当自然阳光越来越少的时候. 这种抑郁通常在春季和夏季解除. 冬季抑郁症, 通常伴有社交退缩, 增加睡眠, 和体重增加, 可以预见的是,季节性情绪抑郁每年都会复发. 3-20%的人受SAD影响,这取决于他们住在哪里. 

双相情感障碍(正式形式为躁狂抑郁症) -这和抑郁症不同, but is included in this list because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extremely low moods that meet the criteria for major depression (unipolar depression). A person with bipolar disorder also experience extreme high – euphoric or irritable moods called mania or less severe form call hypomania. 双相情感障碍影响2.占美国总人口的8%. 

精神抑郁 – This occurs when major depression or bipolar disorder is accompanied by hallucinations, 妄想, 或偏执. 它被认为是具有精神病特征的重度抑郁症. 关于 25% of patients who are admitted to a hospital due to depression actually have psychotic depression. 

如果您一天中大部分时间都出现以下症状, 几乎每天都, 至少两周, 你可能患有抑郁症. 症状包括:
 
  • 持续的悲伤、焦虑、不安或空虚的情绪
  • 绝望或悲观的感觉
  • 易怒
  • 感到内疚、没有价值或无助
  • 兴趣减退对爱好或活动失去兴趣或乐趣
  • 精力减退或疲劳
  • 移动或说话更慢
  • 坐立不安的感觉不安的或坐不动的
  • 难以集中注意力、记忆或做决定
  • 入睡困难、早醒或睡过头
  • 食欲和/或体重变化
  • 有死亡或自杀的想法,或自杀企图
  • 疼痛或痛苦, 头痛, 抽筋, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause and/or that do not ease even with treatment
  • 失眠或睡
  • 难以集中注意力或做决定

不是每个抑郁的人都会经历所有的症状. 有些人只会出现一些症状,而其他人可能会出现很多症状. 症状也可能因疾病的阶段而异. 

抑郁症 can be difficult to identify because its symptoms can vary depending on age and gender. 患有抑郁症的成年人通常会被悲伤所淹没, 而青少年的抑郁往往表现为易怒. Women with depression are more likely to notice symptoms of 焦虑 and indecisiveness, 而男性则更有可能表现出愤怒和攻击性. 

如果你或你认识的人有抑郁症的症状,你的医生可以帮助你. 如症状持续超过两周,应预约就诊. 报告所有症状很重要. Your doctor may perform a physical exam and blood tests to rule out other health disorders or conditions that can be similar to or contribute to depression.  

A diagnosis of depression usually requires symptoms to occur for two weeks or more. 这些症状也会给社会带来巨大的痛苦, 职业, 或者其他重要的功能领域. 讨论情绪, 行为, 日常活动可以帮助揭示抑郁症的严重程度和类型, 在决定最有效的治疗方法时,哪个是关键.

健康专家不确定抑郁的原因, but the prominent theory is involves the brain structure and chemical function/imbalance. 在抑郁症期间,调节情绪的大脑回路的工作效率可能会降低. Drugs that treat depression are believed to improve communication between nerve cells, 帮助他们更正常地跑步. 专家还认为,虽然压力会引发抑郁, 一个人首先必须有患上这种疾病的生物学倾向. 其他诱因可能包括某些药物, 酗酒或滥用药物, 激素的变化, 甚至是这个季节. 

风险因素 可能导致抑郁症的因素有:

  • 抑郁家族史
  • 你大脑的物理结构和化学成分
  • 其他障碍史(焦虑、创伤后应激障碍)
  • 激素变化(怀孕、月经周期、激素治疗)
  • 药物(安眠药、降压药)
  • 重大生活变化, 创伤, 或压力(身体/性虐待), 所爱之人的死亡, 财务问题)
  • 某些生理疾病和药物

No mater the treatment methods chosen, it is important to have a healthy diet and regular sleep. 他们绝大多数寻求治疗的抑郁症患者都找到了治愈方法, 成功率为80-90%. 然而,这并不总是一个容易的过程. 找到正确的方法需要努力, even as the options expand and become more targeted to each patient’s particular needs. No two people are affected the same way by depression and there is no “one-size-fits-all” for treatment. 要找到最有效的正确治疗方法,可能需要一些尝试和错误. 

There are several treatment methods for depression ranging from psychological counseling to medication and 锻炼. 一些治疗方法包括:

  • 研究表明不同类型的 谈话疗法 能对抗轻度到中度抑郁症吗. 病人发现他们只需要几个月的治疗, 而其他的可能会继续长期治疗.
    • 认知行为疗法 改变导致抑郁的想法和行为
    • 人际关系治疗 确定你的人际关系如何影响你的情绪
    • 心理动力学心理治疗 – helps people understand how their behavior and mood are affected by unresolved issues and unconscious feelings
  • 抗抑郁药 治疗抑郁症的药物会影响大脑化学物质的水平吗, 比如血清素和去甲肾上腺素. 抗抑郁药服用几周后才会起作用. Follow up with a doctor is very important to make sure the medication is working effectively and is the correct dosage. 如果尝试的药物没有效果,很有可能另立遗嘱. The American Psychiatric Association suggests that a combination of both antidepressants and psychological counseling is, 平均, 更有效的.
  • 光疗(光线疗法) 已经显示出对SAD患者的有效治疗的希望, 在其他抑郁症疾病中. It involves sitting in front of a specially designed light box that provides either a bright or dim light for a prescribed amount of time each day. 它可以与其他治疗方法结合使用.
  • 研究表明 锻炼 对轻度到中度抑郁症非常有效吗. 体育活动释放的内啡肽可以帮助改善情绪. Regular 锻炼 is also linked to higher self-esteem, better sleep, less stress, and more energy. 任何类型的适度活动,从游泳到做家务,都有帮助. 选择一些你喜欢的事情,每周花上四五次,每次20-30分钟.
  • 电休克治疗(ECT) is a brain stimulation therapy and an option for patients with treatment-resistant or severe melancholic depression. 这种疗法利用电荷来制造可控的癫痫发作. 病人在手术过程中没有意识. ECT能帮助80-90%接受治疗的病人. 

Prolonged or chronic depression can have a devastating inpact on your emotional and physical health. Mental Health America reports that 30-70% of those who died by suicide have depression or bipolar disorder. 

抑郁症的其他并发症会导致:

  • 酒精或物质滥用
  • 头痛和其他慢性疼痛
  • 恐惧症,恐慌症和焦虑发作
  • 学业或工作上的麻烦
  • 家庭和关系问题
  • 社会隔离
  • 因饮食失调导致的超重或肥胖, 增加患心脏病和2型糖尿病的风险
  • 自残
  • 自杀未遂或自杀

预防自杀

如果你认为某人有自残或伤害他人的直接风险:

  • 拨打911或当地的紧急电话
  • 待在伤者身边,直到救援人员到来
  • 拿走任何枪支、刀具、药物或其他可能造成伤害的东西
  • 倾听,但不要评判、争论、威胁或大喊大叫

如果你或你认识的人考虑自杀, 从危机或自杀预防热线获得帮助. 你可以拨打国家预防自杀生命线的电话 1-.

来源:医疗在线.政府

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