血压

血压对生命至关重要. 它是使血液在循环系统中流动的力量. 没有它, oxygen and nutrients won’t be delivered to our tissues and organs and toxins and carbon dioxide cannot be removed through our arteries. If your blood pressure is too high or too low, it can cause numerous health problems.

血压的测量方法有两个: 收缩压 (上面的数字)和 舒张压 (下数)血压.

收缩压

The 收缩压 number is the pressure in blood vessels created by the force of blood being pushed through your arteries as your heart beats. 正常读数低于120. 较高水平在120-129之间. 1期高血压(hypertension)为130-139. 2期高血压的读数为140或更高. 阅读180或更多是高血压危机-拨打911.

舒张压

The 舒张压 reading is the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats. 这是心脏充满血液和获得氧气的时候. 正常读数低于80. 然而, 即使你的舒张压读数正常, 如果你的收缩压读数是120-129, 那你的血压还是很高. 舒张压读数为80-89为1期高血压. 读数为90或以上为2期高血压. 任何舒张压读数为120或更多是高血压危象-拨打911.

缩写mmhg的意思是汞毫米. Mercury was used in the first accurate pressure gauges and is still used in medicine today as a standard unit of measurement for pressure.

  • 血压阶段
  • 风险因素
  • 迹象 & 症状
  • 高血压的后果
  • 预防 & 管理
  • 哪个数字更重要?
The five blood pressure stages recognized by the American Heart Association are:
 

正常的

血压读数小于120/80毫米汞柱. Sticking with heart-healthy habits like balanced diets and regular exercise will help you maintain healthy readings. 

升高

升高 blood pressure is when readings consistently range from 120-129 收缩压 and less than 80 mm Hg 舒张压. People with elevated blood pressure are likely to develop hypertension if left unmanaged.
 

高血压阶段1

Hypertension stage 1 is when blood pressure readings are consistently range from 130-139 收缩压 and 80-89 mm Hg 舒张压. Doctors will likely suggest lifestyle changes and may consider adding blood pressure 药物治疗 based on your risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), 比如心脏病发作或者中风. 
 

高血压第二阶段

Hypertension stage 2 is when blood pressure is consistently 140/90 mm HG or more. 在这个阶段,医生会开药并改变生活方式. 
 

高血压危象

这种程度的高血压需要立即得到治疗. 如果你的血压读数突然超过180/120 mmhg, 等五分钟,然后再测一次血压. 如果你的读数仍然异常高,立即联系你的医生. 

If your blood pressure is higher than 180/120 mm HG and you are experiencing signs of possible organ damage such as chest pain, 呼吸急促(气促), 背部疼痛, 麻木和缺点, 说话困难视野的改变, 不要等着看你的血压会不会自动下降. 拨打911. 

There are risk factors that can increase you chances of developing high blood pressure. 有些因素你可以控制,有些你不能. 

可以控制的因素包括:

  • 吸烟和接触二手烟
  • 糖尿病
  • 肥胖或超重
  • 高胆固醇
  • Unhealthy diet (high in sodium, low in potassium, and drinking too much alcohol)
  • 缺乏身体活动

难以控制或无法修改的因素包括:

  • 家族高血压病史
  • 种族/民族
  • 年龄增加
  • 性别(男性)
  • 慢性肾脏疾病
  • 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停

Socioeconomic status and psychosocial stress are also risk factors for high blood pressure. 这些可能会影响基本生活必需品的获取, 药物治疗, 医疗服务提供者, 以及改变健康生活方式的能力.

大多数时候,高血压并没有明显的症状. 正因为如此,许多人认为它是一个“无声杀手”.” The best way to protect yourself is to check you blood pressure and have heart-healthy lifestyle. If your blood pressure is extremely high, there may be some symptoms to look out for, including:

  • 严重的头痛
  • 疲劳和混乱
  • 视力问题
  • 胸部疼痛
  • 呼吸困难
  • 心率不齐
  • 尿中带血
  • 冲击你的胸部,脖子或耳朵

如果你出现这些症状,请立即去看医生. You could be having a hypertensive crisis that could lead to a heart attack or stroke. 

高血压通常是许多健康并发症的第一征兆. 如果不加以控制,高血压会增加你患以下疾病的风险:

  • Stroke – high blood pressure can cause blood vessels in the brain to burst or clog more easily
  • 视力下降——高血压会使眼睛里的血管紧张
  • Heart failure – high blood pressure can cause the heart to enlarge and fail to supply blood to the body
  • 心脏病发作——高血压会损害动脉,导致动脉阻塞
  • Kidney disease/failure – high blood pressure can damage the arteries around the kidneys and interfere with their ability to effectively filter blood
  • 知道你的数字. 定期检查血压.
  • 不要吸烟,避免吸二手烟.
  • 达到并保持健康的体重.
  • 健康饮食,少吃饱和脂肪和反式脂肪,多吃水果, 蔬菜, 全谷物, 低脂乳制品.
  • 目标是每天摄入低于1500毫克的钠(盐). 即使每天减少1000毫克的钠摄入量也会有所帮助.
  • 吃富含钾的食物. 目标是每天摄入3500-5000毫克钾. 
  • Limit alcohol to no more than one drink per day if you’re a woman or two drinks a day if you’re a man. 
  • 多运动身体. Aim for at least 90 to 150 minutes of aerobic and/or dynamic resistance exercise per week, 和/或每周进行三次等距阻力练习.
  • 按照医生的处方服药.
  • 知道你的血压应该是多少,并努力保持在这个水平. 

通常, more attention is given to the 收缩压 blood pressure as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease for people over 50. 在大多数人, 收缩压 blood pressure rises steadily with age due to the increasing stiffness of large arteries, long-term buildup of plaque and an increased incidence of cardiac and vascular disease. 

然而, either an elevated 收缩压 or elevated 舒张压 blood pressure reading may be used to make a diagnosis of high blood pressure. 根据最近的研究, the risk of death form ischemic heart disease and stroke doubles with every 20 mm Hg 收缩压 or 10 mm Hg 舒张压 increase among people from age 40-89.

如何检查血压?

A health professional will measure your blood pressure using a small gauge attached to an inflatable cuff. 这是简单和无痛的. 给你量血压的人会把袖带缠在你的上臂上. 有些袖口可能会套在你的手腕或前臂上,但这些并不准确. 他们会用听诊器来听血液在动脉中的流动. 

The cuff will be inflated to a pressure higher than your 收缩压 blood pressure, 它会紧紧缠绕你的手臂. 当医生或护士松开它时,袖带就会放气. 他们听到的第一个声音就是收缩压. The point where the noise goes away will mark the start of the 舒张压 blood pressure. Systolic and 舒张压 blood pressure is read as the 收缩压 pressure over the 舒张压 pressure – for example: 120/80 or 120 “over” 80.

你每隔多久测一次血压?
  • 如果你的血压正常(低于120/80), you typically get it checked once a year or more frequently if your doctor suggests it. 
  • 如果你的血压升高(120-129/ 80), 你的医生可能需要每3-6个月检查一次你的血压. 
  • If you are stage 1 hypertension (130-139/80-89), the doctor may suggest rechecking every 3-6 months.
  • Someone with stage 2 hypertension (140/90 or higher) will likely be prescribed 药物治疗s and revisit the doctor in a month. 
我可以在家测血压吗?

是的, keeping track of your blood pressure at home is important – especially if you have high blood pressure. 这可以帮助你和你的医生发现你的治疗是否有效. 让你的医生推荐一种容易使用的血压计. 确保袖口合适. It is a good idea to bring the blood pressure monitor you use at home with you to the doctor’s office. 你可以将读数与医生在办公室访问时的数据进行比较. Avoid caffeine, cigarettes, and exercise for at least 30 minutes before the test.  

资料来源:美国心脏协会

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