<艺术icle class="post-3543 page type-page status-publish ast-艺术icle-single" id="post-3543" itemscope="itemscope" itemtype="http://schema.org/CreativeWork">

注意缺陷/多动障碍(ADHD)

注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)在《万博manbetx客户端2.0》(DSM-5)中被定义为一种行为模式, 在多个设置中出现(e.g.这可能会导致在社会、教育或工作环境中的表现问题. 儿童必须至少有六个症状,其中一个或两个标准的注意力不集中组和多动冲动标准, 而青少年和成年人必须表现出五种症状. 

ADHD is one of the most common neurological disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, 控制冲动的行为, and may act without thinking about the result of their action, 或者过度活跃. 

根据症状,可以出现三种类型或版本的ADHD(表现):

  • 结合演讲 -如果在过去6个月里出现足够多的注意力不集中和多动冲动的症状
  • 主要是粗心的演讲:如果注意力不集中的症状足够多, 但不是hyperactivity-impulsivity, 过去六个月都在吗
  • 主要Hyperactive-Impulsive演讲如果有足够多的多动冲动症状, 但不是注意力不集中, 过去六个月都在吗. 

根据《万博manbetx客户端2.0》(IDEA)和《万博manbetx客户端2.0》504条,患有ADHD的儿童可能有资格在学校获得特殊服务或住宿. 医疗保健提供者可以在与学校合作中发挥重要作用,帮助您的孩子获得他们需要的特殊服务.

DSM-5 ADHD标准

ADHD患者必须表现出一种持续的注意力不集中和/或多动冲动的模式,这种模式会干扰功能或发展. 

  • 注意力不集中
  • Hyperactivity-Impulsivity

Six or more symptoms of inattention for children up to age 16, 对于17岁以上的成年人,5个或更多. 症状 of inattention must be present for at least 6 months, 它们不适合发展水平:

  • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in 学校work, 在工作中, 或者其他活动
  • Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities
  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish 学校work, 家务, 或工作场所的职责(例如.g.,失去焦点,走弯路)
  • 经常在组织任务和活动方面有困难
  • 通常避免, 不喜欢, 或者不愿意做需要长时间脑力劳动的工作(如学校作业或家庭作业)
  • Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g.、学校材料、铅笔、书籍、工具、钱包、钥匙、文书、眼镜、手机)
  • 经常容易分心
  • 在日常生活中经常健忘吗

Six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity for children up to age 16, or five or more for ages 17 or older and adults; symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have been present for at least 6 months to an extent that is disruptive and inappropriate for the person’s developmental level:

  • Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet, or squirms in seat
  • Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected
  • 经常在不合适的情况下跑步或爬山(青少年和成年人可能只会感到不安)
  • Often unable to play or take p艺术 in leisure activities quietly
  • 经常在路上,好像被马达驱动一样
  • 通常会谈过
  • Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed
  • 经常等不到轮到他/她
  • 经常打断或侵扰他人(例如.g.例如,在谈话或游戏中插话)

In 此外,还必须满足以下条件:

  • Several inattention or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present before age 12
  • Several symptoms are present in two or more settings (such as at home, 学校, or work; with 朋友 or relatives; in other activities)
  • There is a clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, 或降低质量, 社会, 学校, 或工作功能
  • The symptoms are not better explained by another mental disorder (such as mood disorder, 焦虑性障碍, 解离性障碍, 或者人格障碍). 这些症状不仅仅发生在精神分裂症或其他精神疾病的过程中. 
  • 迹象 & 症状
  • 原因
  • 诊断
  • 治疗
  • 建议家长
  • 建议成人

Many children have trouble focusing and behaving, but that doesn’t mean they have ADHD. Children with ADHD do not just grow out of these behaviors. 症状 continue and can cause difficulty at 学校, at home, and with 朋友. 

患有多动症的孩子可能:

  • 遐想很多
  • 忘记或失去的东西
  • 扭动或烦躁不安
  • 说得太多
  • 犯粗心的错误或冒不必要的风险
  • 很难抵挡诱惑
  • 轮换有困难
  • 与他人相处有困难
  • 完成任务有困难
  • 难以共享

ADHD的病因和危险因素尚不清楚. 科学家们目前正在努力寻找更好的方法来管理和减少一个人患多动症的机会. Recent studies involving twins found a link between ADHD and genes. 

In addition to genetics, scientist are studying other factors including:

  • 脑损伤
  • 环境暴露(e.g.在怀孕或年轻的时候
  • 怀孕期间的饮酒和吸烟情况
  • 早产
  • 低出生体重

研究并不支持多动症是由吃太多糖引起的流行观点, 看太多电视, 育儿, or 社会 and environmental factors like poverty or family troubles. 这些可能会使症状恶化, but the evidence is not strong enough to conclude that they cause ADHD.

Deciding if a child has ADHD is a several step process. 没有单一的测试来诊断ADHD. 很多障碍,比如焦虑, 抑郁症, 睡眠问题, and certain learning disabilities can have similar symptoms to ADHD, and will need to be ruled out before an accurate diagnosis can be made. 这个过程的一个步骤是进行医学检查,包括听力和视力测试. 这个过程的另一部分可能包括一份评估ADHD症状的清单,并从父母那里获取孩子的病史, 老师, 有时, 这个孩子. 

If you think your child may have ADHD, talk with your child’s doctor. 如果医生担心ADHD, 他们可以推荐一位专家,比如儿童心理学家或发育儿科医生, 或者你可以联系当地的早期干预机构或针对3岁以上儿童的公立学校. In order to make sure your child reaches their full potential, it is very important to get help for ADHD as early as possible.

治疗方法有很多. 父母应该与参与孩子生活的每一个人——医疗保健提供者密切合作, 治疗师, 老师, 教练, 和其他家庭成员. 充分利用所有可用的资源将帮助父母引导他们的孩子走向成功. ADHD的治疗方案包括:

行为疗法(包括对父母的培训) -研究表明,行为治疗是ADHD患儿治疗的重要组成部分. ADHD affects not only a child’s ability to pay attention or sit still at 学校, it also affects relationships with family and other children.  Children with ADHD often show behaviors that can be very disruptive to others. Behavior therapy should st艺术 as soon as ADHD diagnosis is made.

行为治疗的目标是教导或加强积极的行为,消除不必要的或有问题的行为. 它可以包括对父母的培训,对孩子的行为治疗,或两者的结合.

家长培训, 父母学习新的技能或加强他们现有的技能来教和指导他们的孩子和管理他们的行为. 行为治疗方面的家长培训已被证明能加强父母和孩子之间的关系, 减少消极或有问题的行为. Behavioral training is the recommended first line of treatment.

药物 – 药物 can help children with ADHD in their everyday life, and medication treatment may be an effective way to manage ADHD symptoms. 药物治疗是一种选择,可以帮助控制一些行为问题,这些问题在过去曾导致家庭问题, 朋友, 还是在学校.

有几种不同类型的药物被fda批准用于治疗儿童多动症:

  • Stimulants are best known and most widely used ADHD medications. 70%到80%的ADHD患儿在服用这些速效药物后症状会减少.
  • Non-stimulants were approved for treating ADHD in 2003. Non-stimulants do not work as quickly, but they can last up to 24 hours.
  • 药物对儿童的影响不同

学校住宿和干预措施 根据《万博manbetx客户端2.0》,患有多动症的儿童可能有资格在学校获得特殊服务或住宿. An individualized education program (IEP) is one of the services available. IEP过程很复杂, but it’s a very effective way to address how your child learns and functions.

成人多动症 – ADHD lasts into adulthood for at least one-third of children with ADHD. 对成年人的治疗包括药物治疗, 心理治疗, 教育或培训, 或者是综合治疗. 

  • Create a routine – try following the same schedule every day, from wake-up to bedtime.
  • Get organized – encourage your child to put 学校bags, 服装, and toys in the same place every day to discourage your child from losing them. 
  • 控制干扰——关掉电视, 限制噪音, and provide a clean workspace when your child is doing homework. Some children with ADHD learn well if they are moving or listening to background 音乐. 观察你的孩子,看看什么是有效的. 
  • 限制选择——提供一些选择,不要让你的孩子不知所措或过度刺激. 例如, 在几个选项中提供选择, 比如这一套或那一套, 这顿饭还是那顿饭, 或者这个玩具,或者那个. 
  • 当你和你的孩子说话时,要清楚和具体——通过描述你听到他们说的话让你的孩子知道你在听. Use clear, brief directions when they need to do something. 
  • Help your child plan – Break down complicated tasks into simpler, shorter steps. For long tasks, st艺术ing early and taking breaks may help limit stress. 
  • 制定目标,给予表扬或其他奖励——用表格列出目标,跟踪积极的行为, 然后告诉你的孩子他们做得很好,或者用其他方式奖励他们的努力. 确保目标是现实的. 
  • Discipline effectively – instead of yelling or spanking, use timeouts or removal of privileges as consequences for inappropriate behavior. 
  • Create positive opportunities – Children with ADHD may find certain situations stressful. Finding out and encouraging what your child does well – whether it’s 学校, 体育, 艺术, 音乐, 或者玩耍——可以帮助创造积极的体验. 
  • 提供健康的生活方式——营养的食物, 大量的体育活动, 充足的睡眠很重要. They can help keep ADHD symptoms from getting worse.
  • 保持一个例程
  • 为不同的任务和活动列个清单
  • 使用日历来安排事件
  • 使用提示
  • Assigning a special place for keys, bills, and paperwork
  • 将大任务分解成更易于管理的任务, 更小的步骤,以便完成任务的每个部分提供了一种成就感
一个专业的顾问或治疗师可以帮助一个患有ADHD的成年人学习如何组织他或她的生活. Talk with your doctor about a recommendation and treatment plan. 

资源

Links to various resources on the topics discuss on this page. 

不再支持ie浏览器. If you are experiencing issues, please try a different browser.